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    The temples are located near a small town also known as Khajuraho , [8] with a population of about 20, people Census. The monuments are about ten kilometres off the east-west National Highway 75 , and about 50 kilometres from the city of Chhatarpur , which is connected to the state capital Bhopal by the SW-NE running National Highway The 10th-century Bhand Deva Temple in Rajasthan was built in the style of the Khajuraho monuments and is often referred to as 'Little Khajuraho'. History[ edit ] The Khajuraho group of monuments was built during the rule of the Chandela dynasty. The building activity started almost immediately after the rise of their power, throughout their kingdom to be later known as Bundelkhand. Yashovarman's legacy is best exhibited by the Lakshmana Temple. Vishvanatha temple best highlights King Dhanga's reign. In ancient and medieval literature, their kingdom has been referred to as Jijhoti, Jejahoti, Chih-chi-to and Jejakabhukti. This changed in the 13th century; after the army of Delhi Sultanate, under the command of the Muslim Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak, attacked and seized the Chandela kingdom. About a century later, Ibn Battuta , the Moroccan traveller in his memoirs about his stay in India from to CE, mentioned visiting Khajuraho temples, calling them "Kajarra" [16] [17] as follows: Until the 12th century, Khajuraho was under Hindu kings and featured 85 temples. Central India was seized by Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. Under Muslim rule, many temples were destroyed and the rest left in neglect.

    Major processions also carry a copy of the Guru Granth Sahib in reverence. Vaisakhi is a harvest festival for people of the Punjab region. Aawat pauni is a tradition associated with harvesting, which involves people getting together to harvest the wheat. Drums are played while people work.

    At the end of the day, people sing dohay to the tunes of the drum. The harvest festival is also characterized by the folk dance, Bhangra which traditionally is a harvest dance. Fairs or Melas are held in many parts of Punjab, India to mark the new year and the harvesting season.

    The first day of Vaisakh marks the traditional solar new year [50] [51] and it is an ancient festival that predates the founding of Sikhism. The harvest is complete and crops ready to sell, representing a time of plenty for the farmers. Fairs and special thanksgiving pujas prayers are common in the Hindu tradition. The first day of Vaisakh marks the solar new year.

    For some, such as those in and near Gujarat, the new year festivities coincide with the five-day Diwali festival. It is regionally known by many names among the Hindus, though the festivities and its significance is similar.

    It is celebrated by Hindus bathing in sacred rivers, as they believe that river goddess Ganges descended to earth on Vaisakhi. Hindus visit temples, meet friends and party over festive foods. Vaisakhi coincides with the festival of ' Vishu ' celebrated in Kerala a day after Vaisakhi. The festivities include fireworks, shopping for new clothes and interesting displays called 'Vishu Kani'.

    Hindus make arrangements of flowers, grains, fruits which friends and family visit to admire as "lucky sight" Vishukkani. Giving gifts to friends and loved ones, as well as alms to the needy are a tradition of Kerala Hindus on this festive day.

    The following is a list of new year festivals: The new year falls on or about the same day every year for many Buddhist communities in parts of South and Southeast Asia. This is likely an influence of their shared culture in the 1st millennium CE. The Bikhoti Festival of Uttrakhand involves people taking a dip in holy rivers. A popular custom involves beating symbolic stones representing demons with sticks.

    The fair is celebrated in various major centres including Sealdah, Bageshwar and Dwarahat and involves much singing and dancing, accompanied by local drums and other instruments.

    Vishu is the Hindu new year festival celebrated on the same day as Vaisakhi in the Indian state of Kerala , and falls on the first day of Malayali month called Medam. The festival is marked by family time, preparing colorful auspicious items and viewing these as the first thing on the Vishu day.

    In particular, Malayali Hindus seek to view the golden blossoms of the Indian laburnum Kani Konna , money or silver items Vishukkaineetam , and rice. People also visit temples on the day. Each festival historically recognizes a different agricultural cycle of the paddy crops. During Rangali Bihu there are 7 pinnacle phases: Maha Vishuva Sankranti marks the Oriya new year in Odisha. Celebrations include various types of folk and classical dances, such as the Shiva-related Chhau dance.

    On this day people hang pieces of Neem branches with leaves in front of their houses believed to have health benefits. The pot is filled with water daily which act as a drip to protect the sacred plant from the summer heat. The festival is celebrated as a national holiday in Bangladesh. Fairs are organised to celebrate the event which provide entertainment including the presentation of folk songs.

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    Puthandu, also known as Puthuvarusham or Tamil New Year , is the first day of the month Chithirai on the Tamil calendar. Households clean up the house, prepare a tray with fruits, flowers and auspicious items, light up the family Puja altar and visit their local temples.

    People wear new clothes and youngster go to elders to pay respects and seek their blessings, then the family sits down to a vegetarian feast. In the Mithal region of Bihar and Nepal , the new year is celebrated as Jurshital. Pakistan has many sites that are of historic importance to the Sikh faith, such as the birth place of Guru Nanak. These sites attract pilgrims from India and abroad every year on Vaisakhi.

    Contemporary Pakistan has about 20, Sikhs in a total population of about million Pakistanis, or about 0. However, adds Ahmed, the city started losing its cultural vibrancy in s after Zia-ul-Haq came to power, and in recent years "the Pakistan Muslim League N government in Punjab banned kite flying through an official edict more under the pressure of those who want a puritanical version of Islam to be practiced in the name of religion than anything else". In the Province of British Columbia , large, local Sikh communities in the cities of Vancouver , Abbotsford , and Surrey hold their annual Vaisakhi celebrations in April, [88] which include two Nagar Kirtan parades.

    The attendance in Surrey reportedly topped ,, causing organizers to consider future distribution of the festival over several days and local cities, particularly in areas of economic disadvantage which would benefit from the generous charitable efforts seen during Vaisakhi celebrations. The celebrations on 29 April would be the first held in Victoria in over years. Following the parade, dignitaries address the gathering until late afternoon.

    In the city of Brampton , the Gurudwara Sikh Sangat temple and Gobind Sarvar Gurmat School hold Vaisakhi cultural events such as yoga, pagh turban tying, storytelling, and food fairs.

    The Birmingham Nagar Kirtan is held in late April in association with Birmingham City Council, [] and is an annual event attracting thousands of people which commences with two separate nagar kirtans setting off from gurdwaras in the city and culminating in the Vaisakhi Mela at Handsworth Park. Amongst Sikh populations in the United States , there is usually a parade commemorating the Vaisakhi celebration. In Manhattan , New York City [] people come out to do " Seva " selfless service such as giving out free food, and completing any other labor that needs to be done.

    In Los Angeles, California , the local Sikh community consisting of many gurdwaras [] holds a full day Kirtan spiritual music program followed by a parade. The Sikh community, a subgroup of the Malaysian Indian ethnic minority race, is an ethnoreligious minority in Malaysia, which is why Vaisakhi is not a public holiday. However, in line with the government's efforts to promote integration among the country's different ethnic and religious groups, the prime minister, Najib Razak has announced that beginning , all government servants from the Sikh Malaysian Indian community will be given a day off on Vaisakhi Day.

    In Punjab region, Vaisakhi is common, while in the Doabi and Malwai regions, it is common for speakers to substitute a "B" for a "V". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Major spring time Sikh festival, harvest. A traditional new year festival for many Hindus. This article is about a Sikh and Hindu festival. For the unrelated Buddhist festival, see Vesak. Vaisakhi is the birthday of Khalsa Panth [1]. Sikh gurus.

    Select revered saints. General topics. Main article: Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers. Other texts.

    Text classification. Other topics. Pohela Boishakh. A depiction of Guru Gobind Singh initiating the first five members of the Khalsa. Vaisakhi at Trafalgar Square , London. My Sikh Year. The Rosen Publishing Group. The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. Government of India. Retrieved 17 December Akaal Publishers.

    Kamasutra book malayalam photo pdf

    Gupta; Amita Gupta Concise Encyclopaedia of India. Atlantic Publishers. Jacobsen South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora. Bakshi, Sita Ram Sharma, S. Gajnani Parkash Singh Badal: Chief Minister of Punjab. The Routledge handbook of religion and security.

    New York: The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies.

    Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Hansra Liberty at Stake, Sikhs: Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. Raj South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 26 November CS1 maint: Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals.

    Its origin and design is a subject of scholarly studies. Shobita Punja [28] has proposed that the temple's origin reflect the Hindu mythology in which Khajuraho is the place where Shiva got married; with Raghuvamsha verse 5. Description[ edit ] Sections and orientation of Khajuraho temples. The temple site is within Vindhya mountain range in central India.

    An ancient local legend held that Hindu deity Shiva and other gods enjoyed visiting the dramatic hill formation in Kalinjar area. The temple complex reflects the ancient Hindu tradition of building temples where gods love to pray. The relative layout of temples integrate masculine and feminine deities and symbols highlight the interdependence.

    Of the surviving temples, six are dedicated to Shiva and his consorts, eight to Vishnu and his affinities, one to Ganesha, one to Sun god, three to Jain Tirthankars. An overall examination of site suggests that the Hindu symbolic mandala design principle of square and circles is present each temple plan and design. Scholars suggest that this reflects the Hindu symbolism for three realms or trilokinatha, and five cosmic substances or panchbhuteshvara. Further, the images are arranged in a configuration to express central ideas of Hinduism.

    It has been identified with the Vaidyanath temple mentioned in the Grahpati Kokalla inscription. Architecture of the temples[ edit ] The layout plan of Kandariya Mahadeva Temple.

    It uses the 64 pada grid design. Smaller Khajuraho temples use the 9, 16, 36 or 49 grid mandala plan. The shikhara, or spire, of the temple rises above the garbhagriya.

    This symmetry and structure in design is derived from central beliefs, myths, cardinality and mathematical principles. The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow.

    Each supports the other. Khajuraho temples use the 8x8 64 Vastupurusamandala Manduka grid layout plan left found in Hindu temples. The relative placement of the images are not random but together they express ideas, just like connected words form sentences and paragraphs to compose ideas.

    Relationships

    Many of the inscriptions on the temple walls are poems with double meanings, something that the complex structure of Sanskrit allows in creative compositions. An illustration of Khajuraho temple Spires Shikhara, Vimana built using concentric circle and rotating-squares principle. Four spires left are shown above, while the inside view of one Shikara ceiling right shows the symmetric layout.

    Above the vastu-purusha-mandala of each temple is a superstructure with a dome called Shikhara or Vimana, Spire. The temple Shikhara, in some literature, is linked to mount Kailash or Meru, the mythical abode of the gods. This clockwise walk around is called pradakshina. One near the entrance, on the east side, serves as the waiting room for pilgrims and devotees. The mandapas are also arranged by principles of symmetry, grids, and mathematical precision.

    This use of same underlying architectural principle is common in Hindu temples found all over India. The Khajuraho temples are made of sandstone, with a granite foundation that is almost concealed from view. This form of construction requires very precise joints.